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Động từ + danh động từ và động từ nguyên mẫu
 2. VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES
          (Động từ + danh động từ và động từ nguyên mẫu)

2.1 Các động từ thông dụng được theo sau bởi danh động từ (gerunds) gồm có:
 

admit (chấp nhận)

The man admitted having stolen a car.

advise (khuyên)

We'd advise packing up your suitcases at least six hours before the departure.

allow (cho phép)

We never allow smoking in this restaurant.

avoid (tránh)

You should avoid mentioning the death of her son.

can't face (không chịu được)

I can't face working with him.

can't help (không tránh khỏi)

When I see him, I can't help laughing.

consider (xem xét)

John has considered going to America again.

delay (trì hoãn)

We delay paying the rent until next week.

deny (từ chối)

The boy denied having stolen the bag.

detest (ghét)

I detest working with such an arrogant, self-satisfied man.

discuss (thảo luận)

We'll discuss building a new school for this town next week.

dislike (ghét)

Many people dislike living in high buildings.

enjoy (thích)

We enjoy walking together for hours on the beach.

fancy (mong ước)

Do you fancy going out somewhere?

finish (kết thúc)

Linda finished writing the annual report for her company yesterday.

give up (từ bỏ)

Many people gain weight after they give up smoking.

imagine (tưởng tượng)

He imagined living with her in a beautiful villa by the sea.

involve (bao gồm)

The exam involves writing two essays and answering five questions.

justify (bào chữa)

He can't justify neglecting his wife and children.

keep (on) (tiếp tục)

We kept (on) walking for hours under the sun.

mind (bận tâm đến)

I don't mind walking if it's fine.

miss (nhỡ)

The goalkeeper just missed stopping the ball.

postpone (hoãn lại)

The company postponed signing the contract due to lack of information.

practise (luyện tập)

She practises playing the piano two hours a day.

put off (hoãn lại)

He put off going to the doctor.

quit (từ bỏ)

The doctor advised him to quit smoking.

recollect (nhớ lại)

I don't recollect meeting him before.

recommend (khuyên)

We recommend checking the battery at least once a month.

report (báo cáo)

The witnesses reported seeing the aircraft burst into flames.

resist (chống lại)

The parliament resisted increasing income tax.

resent (bực tức)

They resented being treated as criminals.

resume (bắt đầu lại)

He resumed reading after a while.

risk (liều)

He risked being arrested when he stayed in his house.

suggest (đề nghị)

They suggest going by train because of safety reasons.


2.2 Các động từ thông dụng được theo sau bởi động từ nguyên mẫu có to (to-infinitives) gồm có:
 

afford (có đủ tiền)

 I can't afford to buy the car.

agree (đồng ý)

He agreed to pay half the cost.

aim (nhằm mục đích)

They are aiming to increase income tax by 20%.

appear (hình như)

The police appeared not to know about the accident.

arrange (sắp xếp)

We arranged to meet him tomorrow morning.

ask (yêu cầu)

The customer asked to see the manager.

attempt (cố gắng)

Our staff will attempt to send you the latest models as soon as possible.

beg (van xin)

He begged to be told the truth.

choose (chọn)

We choose to stay at a cheap hotel.

claim (tuyên bố)

I don't claim to be an expert in network security.

come (rốt cuộc)

They came to accept the death of their daughter.[They finally accepted...]

decide (quyết định)

He decided to see her this afternoon.

demand (đòi hỏi)

I demanded to read the document before I signed it.

expect (trông đợi)

She expects to finish everything before the departure.

fail (thất bại)

Mary failed to pass her final test.

happen (tình cờ)

We happened to meet in the street. [We met by chance...]

help (giúp)

They all helped to put up the tents for the victims.

hesitate (lưỡng lự)

Please do not hesitate to ask me if you have any questions.

hope (hy vọng)

We hope to finish the project this month.

learn (học)

The children are learning to swim.

long (mong mỏi)

I am longing to open this parcel. I can't wait.

manage (tìm được cách)

We managed to cross the river before dark.

need (cần)

You need to send us a copy of your passport.

offer (đề nghị)

John offered to do the washing-up.

plan (dự định)

The general planned to attack at midnight.

prepare (sửa soạn)

We are preparing to make a boat for the trip.

pretend (giả vờ)

The soldiers pretended to withdraw.

promise (hứa hẹn)

My godfather promised to send me some money.

prove (chứng tỏ)

His theory proves to be right.

refuse (từ chối)

The director refused to discuss the problem with the workers.

seek (cố tìm cách)

They sought to bring the conflict to an end.

seem (hình như)

The ship seemed to be sinking.

tend (có khuynh hướng)

Many people tend to think that water pollution is not a global issue.

threaten (đe dọa)

The terrorists threatened to kill a hostage if their demands were not met.

turn out (hoá ra là)

The prize they promised turned out to be a small one.

volunteer (tình nguyện)

The young man volunteered to help us.

want (muốn)

Does anyone want to say anything?

wish (mong ước)

We all wish to live a longer life.


2.3 Một số động từ có thể theo sau bởi to-infinitive hoặc gerund

  a) với nghĩa hầu như không đổi:

begin (bắt đầu) The president began to speak.
speaking.
bother (bận tâm) Don't bother to knock at the door while I am working.
knocking at the door while I am working.
can't bear/ stand
(không chịu được)
I can't bear to see her cry.
seeing her cry.
cease (ngừng) Once we retire, we automatically cease to get safety insurrance.
getting safety insurrance.
continue (tiếp tục) The traffic continued to move slowly.
moving slowly.
hate (ghét) I hate to leave everything to the last minute.
leaving everything to the last minute.
intend (định) The government intends to take immediate action after the demonstration.
taking immediate action after the demonstration.
like (thích) I like to ride my bike to school every day.
riding my bike to school every day.
love (yêu) Mary loves to eat sandwiches.
eating sandwiches.
prefer (thích hơn) Many people prefer to stay indoors on Sunday.
staying indoors on Sunday.
propose (đề nghị) Tom proposed to stay for two more days.
staying for two more days.
start (bắt đầu) It suddenly started to rain heavily.
raining heavily.


  b) với nghĩa khác nhau:

forget (quên) He's absent-minded. He always forgets to lock the door. [quên làm một việc gì]
I'll never forget falling off the horse last year. [quên một việc đã qua]
get (tìm cách, bắt đầu) I hope I can get to speak to the President. [tìm cách]
It's half past seven. We'd better get going. [bắt đầu]
go on (chuyển qua,
tiếp tục)
After receiving the prize, the winner went on to thank all the people present. [chuyển qua]
The band went on playing even after everyone had left. [tiếp tục]
mean (định, có nghĩa) I'm sorry. I didn't mean to step on your foot. [ định = intend]
This new order will mean working overtime. [có nghĩa, dẫn đến = entail]
need/want (muốn, cần) We need/want to use the computer. [muốn]
The room needs/wants cleaning. [cần - chú ý gerund ở đây mang nghĩa thụ động]
regret (tiếc) We regret to inform you that the meeting has been cancelled. [tiếc khi phải làm một việc gì]
We regret having wasted so much time last week. [tiếc về một việc đã qua]
remember (nhớ) Please remember to turn off the light. [nhớ làm một việc gì]
I can remember walking with her on the beach. [hồi tưởng lại một việc đã qua]
stop (ngừng) At the newsagent she stopped to buy a newspaper. [dừng lại để làm một việc gì]
You'd better stop talking and get on with some work. [ngừng làm một việc gì]
try (cố, thử) I'm trying to light a fire, but the wood won't burn. [cố gắng làm một việc gì]
You could try pouring some petrol on to make it burn. [thử làm một việc gì]

2.4 Những động từ theo sau bởi tân ngữ (O) + động từ nguyên mẫu có to (to-infinitive):
 
advise (khuyên) They advised me to go to the doctor immediately.
allow (cho phép) John allowed me to use his motorbike.
ask (yêu cầu) I asked him to post the letter this morning.
beg (cầu xin) He begged her to come and stay with him.
cause (gây ra) Inflation caused prices to rise sharply.
challenge (thách đố) He challenged me to swim across the river.
convince (thuyết phục) They convinced him to give up the project.
dare (thách đố) He dared me to do better than he had done.
encourage (khuyến khích) My father encouraged me to study harder.
expect (trông đợi) We expect you to come on time.
forbid (cấm) They forbid him to leave.
force (ép buộc) The investigator forced him to speak the truth.
hire (thuê mướn) The owner hired him to clean the toilet every afternoon.
instruct (chỉ đạo) The director instructed him to keep the door locked.
invite (mời) We'd like to invite you all to the party this afternoon.
need (cần) We need you to help us.
order (ra lệnh) The judge ordered the man to pay a fine.
permit (cho phép) They permitted the workers to leave early.
persuade (thuyết phục) I persuaded her to come and see me.
remind (nhắc) Mother reminded me to turn off the light.
require (đòi hỏi) The headmaster required all the staff to submit their annual reports.
teach (dạy) He taught me to dance.
tell (bảo) The policeman told me to show him my driving license.
urge (thúc giục) I urged him to apply for the job.
want (muốn) We all want you to be happy.
warn (cảnh báo) I warned him not to drink so much.


 

NHỮNG LỖI THƯỜNG PHẠM

  • Nhầm lẫn giữa động từ theo sau bởi to-infinitive và gerund:
    *They miss to watch the news when they are traveling.
    [Phải dùng miss watching thay cho miss to watch]
    *We demand knowing our status.
    [Phải dùng demand to know thay cho demand knowing]
     
  • Dùng liên tiếp hai động từ tận cùng bằng -ing:
    *They were already beginning arriving.
    [Phải dùng beginning to arrive thay cho beginning arriving]
     
  • Dùng gerund sau would like/love:
    *Our guest would like saying a few words to you.
    [phải thay would like saying bằng would like to say]
     
  • Dùng sai gerund hoặc infinitive do không phân biệt nghĩa:
    *I'll never forget to break down on the motorway. It was awful.
    [phải thay forget to break down bằng forget breaking down: quên một việc đã qua]
    *At the services John stopped buying a newspaper.
    [phải thay stopped buying (ngừng mua) bằng stopped to buy (ngừng xe để mua)]
     
  • Nhầm lẫn do ảnh hưởng của mẫu câu tương tự:
    *They don't allow to smoke here.
    [Phải dùng allow smoking thay cho allow to smoke. Cần chú ý mẫu câu to allow sb to do sth]



 
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